Live mixing techniques

This course explores the acoustical, musical, and technical aspects of the live performance, in order to learn how to present the best possible sound to the audience, with specially attention in Orchestral and Acoustic Ensemble reinforcement. You will study, evaluate, and compare several different live and studio recordings in order to establish a point of reference for your own mix choices. The goal of the course is to enable you to build your own mixes and use what you have learned to conform to a high standard for sonic quality, blend, and authenticity.


What’s Live Sound: some definition of Live System

A brief history of modern PA/Live System growth

The PA system from a technical point of view

Mixer and Eq

Live mixing techniques

Orchestra and related issues

Required Readings:


Gregg J Boonstra, Mixing Live Sound: An Application Guide for the Audio Technician (1st Edition), December 2013

Richard King, Recording Orchestra and Other Classical Music Ensembles, Routledge, 2017

Nathan Lively, Master Your Craft, 2nd, free download at

Paul White, The SOS Guide to Live Sound: Optimising Your Band’s Live-Performance Audio, Focal Press 2015

Extracts: (download from course site)

Preface on Bob McCharty, Sound Systems: Design and Optimization, Focal Press, 2009

Chapter 1 on Raven Biederman, Penny Pattison, Basic Live Sound Reinforcement A Practical Guide for Starting Live Audio, Focal Press, 2013

Francesco La Camera, Orchestra and related issues